Making Liquid Nitrogen From Scratch!

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  • Published on:  Friday, August 16, 2019
  • I used a nitrogen membrane and Stirling cryocooler to liquefy nitrogen out of the air. For this video I partnered with Starbucks to celebrate their Nitro Cold Brew. Order one here: https://starbucks.app.link/derekmuller

    Making liquid nitrogen is hard - in fact up until 150 years ago scientists doubted whether it was even possible to liquefy nitrogen. In 1823, At the royal institution in London, Michael Faraday first produced liquid chlorine, kind of accidentally by putting it under high pressure. He similarly liquefied ammonia.

    Borrowing a mixture from Thilorier in France, a combination of dry ice, snow and ether, he reached a temperature of -110C. By 1845 he used this mixture plus a hand pump to pressurize gases to liquefy all the known gases except six, which included oxygen and nitrogen. These became known as the “permanent” gases.

    A French Physicist Aimé compressed oxygen and nitrogen in tanks and then lowered them into the ocean over 1.6km deep, where the pressure got up to 200 atmospheres. Still the gases didn’t liquefy.

    Only at the end of 1877 were the first droplets of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen produced, by Cailletet in France. He first tried oxygen by compressing it up to 300 atmospheres, cooled to -30C, but that wasn't even enough to liquefy oxygen. But when he suddenly released the pressure, the expanding gas cooled, he estimated to -200C and he saw a mist and then droplets slide down the walls of his vessel.

    It's amazing how far we've come in that now I can purchase a helium-based cryocooler. It compresses and expands the gas to absorb heat from the tip of the cold finger and eject it into the surroundings at ambient temperature.
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  • Minzerta
    Minzerta  33 minutes ago

    This is an odd thing to be an ad.

  • hoon4tw
    hoon4tw  4 hours ago

    Not normally a fan of sponsored episodes this one actually works very well. I've had cold crew coffee but I'd still rather a nitrogen infused stout.

  • Papageno
    Papageno  16 hours ago

    I think Guinness beer also uses nitrogen.

  • Papageno
    Papageno  16 hours ago

    Next: making a molten salt reactor from scratch!

  • Jimmy-James Olivier-McCutcheon

    nitrogen in guiness cans ????

  • TheyCalledMeT
    TheyCalledMeT  23 hours ago

    this guy has a gambling problem

  • KIING ZAY
    KIING ZAY  yesterday

    Press me 0:35 **. I think this guy is from my home.👑

  • Mike Bennett
    Mike Bennett  yesterday

    Now I know a little bit more about how Elon Musk plans to produce his own rocket fuel on his space trips to Mars and perhaps the Moon. (?) Of course, he will first have to extract the gas from the rocky soil.

  • titatatuta
    titatatuta  yesterday

    I understand my comment is really insignificant here. But I just wanted to say that by showing the whole video as an advertisement, you will only irritate people and not earn any subscribers. I was listening to an interesting interview while working and this ad showed up and went on and on and on. I couldn't skip it, since I was busy. I just cannot understand why would you show the whole video? If you have too much money, then do some charity! Don't just push your videos on people!

  • glasslinger
    glasslinger  2 days ago

    Could you put the source of the nitrogen filter in a comment please.

  • Bryce __
    Bryce __  2 days ago

    The oxygen testing was obnoxiously loud with the beeps.

  • mavos1211
    mavos1211  2 days ago

    something tells me Alan is strapped for cash!

  • Faze g Kin
    Faze g Kin  3 days ago

    Nitrogen is harm full to your body and why do you eath it I watch ...many video

  • Mansel Reed
    Mansel Reed  3 days ago

    Which cryo-cooler is this?

  • Mansel Reed
    Mansel Reed  3 days ago

    A regulator at the end of the nitrogen membrane would help slow the flow rate.

  • CONCEPTUALMAN
    CONCEPTUALMAN  3 days ago +1

    I hear it to the tune of the Goldfinger theme : cold fingeeeeer thermal energy transfer with a magic touch hmmm

  • ZeOverman
    ZeOverman  3 days ago

    Make an apple pie from scratch...

  • ZeOverman
    ZeOverman  3 days ago

    This reminds me of this story I read about a small Finnish company in the middle of nowhere that developed a way to make so pure liquid Nitrogen that they landed a contract to supply NATO the coolant they need for their missiles & other stuff.

  • L3GION MUSIC
    L3GION MUSIC  3 days ago

    yeah no this nearly 14 minute video came up as an ad on some music I was listening to while playing a game, and I don't really appreciate having to listen to it for the duration of that game because I cannot tab out until the end. For that, I'm afraid I hate you.

  • Dean Arnold
    Dean Arnold  3 days ago

    the bubbles aren't going down! the condensed liquid is going down